Tag Archives: asteroid mining

Will Halloween 2015, Truly Be The Scariest Until 2027?QA x

29 Oct
A photo illustration featuring an arc of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) entering the Earth's orbital path. — Photo illustration: D a v i d J o h a n s on

A photo illustration featuring an arc of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) entering the Earth’s orbital path. — Photo illustration: D a v i d  A  J o h a n s o n

Multimedia eLearning program by: D a v i d A. J o h a n s o n ©

The author is a multimedia photographer, CTE instructor and a former Boeing scientific photographer. For an alternative graphic presentation of this program, please visit: http://BigPictureOne.wordpress.com

Last night I was inspired to take photos of a dramatic moonrise appearing above the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest. It was an exceptionally clear evening, which enabled the luminous clarity of the moon to reveal its turbulent history.

In fact, the Earth shares some frightening historic parallels with all of its neighboring planets within our solar system. Indeed, of all world’s collateral past and future events, it is the asteroid or comet nemeses which present a potential close encounter of the worst kind!

Ignorance Is Bliss

Since the beginning of time, on a nearly daily basis, these extraterrestrial objects known as an asteroid come perilously close (relative to celestial distance) to our planet Earth. NASA scientists developed a method of categorizing Near Earth Objects (NEO) for tracking the orbital path of asteroids and comets. The space agency’s Near-Earth Object Observation (NEOO) Program, often referred to “Spaceguard” tracks and catalogues celestial objects coming to within 30 million miles (96,560,400 kilometers) of Earth. Ground and space-based telescope resources are used for increased surveillance and tracking of these unwelcome space nomads.

Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHAs) is what NASA currently uses for its parameters to gauge an asteroid’s potential impact threat to the Earth. If an asteroid is projected to travel within the moon and Earth’s orbit, it’s considered a potentially Earth-impact threat and depending on its specific trajectory, it is then placed into groups (Athen, Apollo Amor) for enhanced analysis. If a PHA were detected, it should not be assumed that an imminent Earth-collision is about to happen, however, understating or ignoring this catastrophic potential could lead to an early and permanent retirement of most life on Earth.
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Blinded By The Light of Day

On February 15, 2013 the asteroid 367943 Duende was long-predicted to approach and pass dangerously close to Earth. On that morning, just after sunrise near Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia a 20 meter sized meteor exploded as it entered the Earth’s atmosphere from a shallow angle. A radiant superbolide meteor blast occurred at an elevation of just under 30 km (18 miles) creating an intense light brighter than the Sun.

The estimated energy released was equivalent to approximately 500 kilotons of TNT, upwards of 30 times the explosive energy of the atomic bomb detonated above Hiroshima. Regional hospitals treated approximately 1,500 people for injuries and at least 7,000 buildings were damaged in half a dozen cities as an indirect result of the meteor’s shock wave.

The Chelyabinsk asteroid literally snuck under the radar as not all 15 meters wide, near-Earth objects are tracked and catalogue. The trajectory of the asteroid aligned so close to the Sun that it was not visible to the instruments responsible for locating such objects.

Within 16 hours after this unexpected event, the forecasted asteroid 367943 Duende perilously flew past Earth by 27,700 km without incident. In the days that followed, there were increased sightings of bright meteors streaking through the night sky. International space agencies and sources concluded that due to the divergent trajectories of the two celestial objects, they could not possibly be related. Consequently, this event illustrates how unprepared the World community currently is for developing essential contingencies to mitigate the range of potential dangers that asteroids present.

 NASA illustration

— NASA illustration

A Sobering Series Of Events

By coincidence, the Chelyabinsk event is cited as the second largest asteroid to impact the Earth’s atmosphere in recorded history. The larger, 1908 Tunguska event was caused from a 50 meter wide asteroid strike, which detonated at a 28,000 foot elevation. In an instant this event leveled approximately 800 square miles of Siberian forest that contained 80 million trees. The subsequent fireball is estimated to have released the energy equivalent of 185 Hiroshima atomic bombs.

The mother of all meteors to have collided with the Earth is the infamous Chicxulub asteroid, which impacted Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula 65 − 66 million years ago. This mammoth asteroid caused a 10 mile wide crater and was from a 60 km (37.28 mile) fragment associated with the larger 170 km wide parent body. It is estimated the Chicxulub impactor released the equivalent 100 teratons of TNT, which also qualifies as the largest explosion to happen on the planet. This asteroid’s impact is credited with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, causing the worldwide extinction of most dinosaurs.

Size Does Matter

To put the potential horrific effects of asteroids into perspective, we can use past asteroid encounters to determine the likely scale of catastrophic damage that would likely occur.

An asteroid about 40 meters in width could level the largest cities on the globe. An asteroid or comet of 400 meters, similar in size to the asteroid which NASA has forecasted to come near the Earth on Halloween, would cause serious geological damage to an entire continent.

An asteroid about 1000 meters or larger, would likely end most life on Earth.

Trick Or Treat

Doomsday preppers are exceptionally excited regarding what NASA scientists are tracking and forecasting for asteroid 2015 TB 145. This 400 meter-wide (1,300 feet) is tracked using optical observatories and the radar technology of NASA’s Deep Network at Goldstone, California. Known as the ‘Great Pumpkin’ Halloween Asteroid, it is predicted to safely travel slightly beyond the moon’s orbit on October 31 at 10:05 a.m. PDT., before returning back on its circular journey into the vast realm of our solar system.

According to the Minor Planet Center, which catalogs Near-Earth objects (NEOs) this Halloween’s asteroid visitor is the closest known approach by any substantial celestial object until asteroid 1999 AN10 – which is a massive 800 meter sized object, whose orbit will return it near our moon in August 2027. ~

Resources And References Relating To This Subject Matter.

Halloween Asteroid a Treat for Radar Astronomy — http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news190.html

The Tunguska Impact — 100 Years Latter  — http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/30jun_tunguska/

Near-Earth Object Program — http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/

Near Earth Object Groups — http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/neo/groups.html

NEO Earth Close Approaches — http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/ca/

Chicxulub Crater

Asteroid to narrowly miss Earth on Halloween — http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/21/us/asteroid-earth-nasa-halloween-feat/

Asteroid that could wipe out London — http://www.express.co.uk/news/science/592987/End-of-the-world-asteroid-Blood-Moon-September-apocalypse-armageddon-comet-meteor

THE MARTIAN PROPHECIES: Earth’s Conquest Of The Red Planet

12 Mar

Mars Frontier series

Early Mars terraforming site inspected by an American first-generation colonist.
Essay, eLearning program, and multimedia content by: David Anthony Johanson © All writing and photography within this program (unless indicated) was produced by the author.
If you would like to see this essay in an alternative graphic format please visit our Science Tech Tablet site at: http://bigpictureone.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/the-martian-prophecies-earths-conquest-of-the-red-planet/
Fu-tur-ism                                                                                                                               noun
1. Concern with events and trends of the future or which anticipate the future.
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. — Arthur C. Clarke
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How Earth Conquered Mars And Successfully Colonized The Red Planet
March 2054

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The Evolutionary Mastery Of Mars
In a forty-year period, the march towards making Mars inhabitable, astonished the most optimistic futurist. A sequence of technological events and economic opportunities (commonly known as the Third Industrial Revolution) converged seamlessly, allowing for safe and efficient journeys to the fourth planet from our Sun. Now, human life has sustained itself and is beginning to thrive on Martian soil.
On Earth, three decades into the third millennium, unstable global weather patterns caused by environmental abuse to our oceans, created extreme ripple effects with appalling famines and droughts. Then, suddenly a horrific rain of fire appeared as a sequence of catastrophic meteorite strikes plagued Earth— hastening humanity’s efforts to reach for the red planet. Of all the planets in our solar system — Mars has proven the best hope as a lifeboat and as a refuge for life taking hold.
Collaboration from the World’s nations, aligned rapidly to expand the colonies beyond Earth’s low-orbit. These outposts are in a stable formation at Sun-Earth Lagrangian Points:  L2, L4,  L5 and beyond. The various sites are used to support manufacturing, exploration and asteroid mining operations. Once established, they became “stepping-stones” towards Mars. Distant supply and launch stations are currently expanding at Sun-Mars Lagrangian points, circulating Mars.

mars-map

Triumph Through Large Scale Asteroid Mining 
After the first three decades of daring space exploration in the late Twentieth Century, momentum was lost from lack of compelling mission. Chemical propulsion system limitations and lack of aerospace manufacturing beyond Earth’s orbit, slowed space exploration’s progress. Major superpowers lacked funding and political will to achieve great advances beyond low Earth Orbit.
As the Twenty-First Century progressed, collaboration of prime aerospace companies Boeing and Space X, developed, hybrid launch vehicles to accelerate humanity’s expanded presence in space. Private commercial ventures determined a great potential existed for mining valuable resources from near Earth asteroids and the Moon. The first company to successfully begin asteroid mining were Planetary Resources, with funding provided by wealthy technology luminaries.

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Three-D Printing In Space – A Bridge To Infinity 
Early in the Twenty-first Century, new advanced technological tools were developed for flexible and efficient manufacturing. After revolutionary 3-D printing operations took hold in space, opportunities expanded rapidly to develop massive infrastructure beyond Earth’s orbit. Three-D printing devices made prefabrication of immense living and working sites possible on the Moon and various stationary points well beyond Earth’s gravitational influence.

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Three-D printing for manufacturing space-station stepping-stones
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Beyond Earth’s Orbit — Islands In Space
As the population of human enterprises rapidly expanded into deep space, exploration of Mars became practical and irresistible.
Using a spectrum of cybernetic applications, including artificial intelligences (AI), atomically precise manufacturing (APM) and 3-D printing provided cost-effective infrastructure manufacturing  to expand beyond Earth’s low orbit. The network of space station developments offers a growing population of skilled aerospace workers — dynamic living and work environments.
Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) produces an endless variety of manufactured goods for the inhabitants of interplanetary space. As the initial space stations quickly expanded and connected to one another, they became known as “Island Stations.” Adopting interplanetary codes for infrastructure support commonality is maintained for all inhabitants and guest visits by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA).
A network of stepping stone islands, which initially were used to extend the reach of asteroid mining operations from stable points beyond a low Earth orbit, is essential for colonizing Mars.

Mars Frontier series

Approximately 10 million miles from Earth, a network of station islands is positioned as a gateway point to Mars. These station networks are mutually protected from solar storms/flares by their own artificial magnetosphere. Earth (blue dot) and its moon can be seen near the upper-center part of the photo.

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Revolution — Electro Magnetic Propulsion And Magnetic Shield Protective  Fields 
Revolutionary, electromagnetic propulsion systems, using super-cooled, conducting magnets and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) were developed for vastly superior performance over conventional chemical rockets. The time required to reach destinations such as Mars has been reduced significantly, by a factor of one year to less than two weeks. Initial funding from NASA and ESA, created a collaboration between Boeing, SpaceX and Virgin Galatic to produce these hybrid propulsion space craft. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/boeing-spacex-to-team-with-nasa-on-space-taxi/
The greatest threat to human space travel and colonization is from solar winds of magnetized plasma carrying protons and alpha particles, which can
Mars Frontier seriesbreak down DNA and lead to cancer. A magnetic coil shield system allows space craft protection from most harmful radiation by creating its own magnetosphere. This shielding system harnesses for universal applications to protect space station populations, inner planetary travelers and Martian colonies.
A high energy accelerator was developed on Mars using spectrums of solar energy to recreate a magnetic field to help produce a sustainable atmosphere.
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   An electromagnetic propulsion cargo ship as it begins entering a high energy state.

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Electromagnetic propulsion “asteroid lifter” encounters solar wind storm.   

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NASA illustration.

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Genetic Modification Through Astrobiology Provides Essential Benefits For Human Space Travelers
Evolutionary biology has provided advantages to meet the challenges of human travel into deep space.
The first generation of genetically modified humans was created to  limit the effects and risk from extended space travel. Microchip circuitry imbedded into tissue, gave humans expanded capabilities to assure space survivability, productivity, and flight operations. To combat muscle degradation from zero gravity-exposure, contractile protein levels were increased in muscle tissue.

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Settlements On The Red Planet And Stages Of Terraforming
To survive solar radiation effects, early Mar’s settlers lived bellow the planet’s regolith (soil). Within less than a decade, the colonies developed their own localized magnetosphere, which became encapsulated environments within translucent domes — creating an atmospheric oasis. These aerodynamic structures offer shielding from dust storms and subzero temperatures. Now, an enriched quality of life on Mars includes ever-expanding domains of Earth like atmosphere for expanded development and life above the surface of the red planet.Meteor showers streaming above craters and cliffs during a Martian sunrise.
Meteor showers streaming above craters and cliffs during a Martian sunrise.

Mars Frontier series

Massive mirrors are fixed in orbit above Mars for reflecting warmth back onto its surface, to provide a more temperate climate. Reflected light directed at Martian polar ice caps and its Carbon dioxide atmosphere of CO2 helps to keep thermal energy near the planet’s surface. As a result, a thermal runaway greenhouse effect is created to help build a thicker atmosphere. Release of microorganisms on the red the planet dramatically accelerates production, for intensifying greenhouse gas expansion.
Directing small asteroids with rich concentrations of ammonia to impact nitrate beds on Mars, releases high volumes of oxygen and nitrogen. These highly controlled asteroid strikes are providing substantial positive results to help develop an enriched atmosphere.

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Nanotechnology is now employed on the surface of Mars and is dramatically altering landscape regions within various craters. Genetically modified plant forms are successfully taking hold and surviving some test environments. In conclusion, all of these achievements are creating a more Earth like climate, for efforts to terraform Mars.

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Earth’s Sustainable Community On Mars
Self replicating machines using APM manufacturing allow infrastructure to develop at astonishing rates on the red planet. New scientific, engineering and mining communities are establishing themselves rapidly as they descend from orbiting stations and stationary platforms above the planet. The current population on Mars has surpassed 40,000 inhabitants and is projected to double within the next five-years.

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The form of governance adopted by the colonies on Mars is based on a nonpolitical and international form of cooperation.  Asteroid mining and APM manufacturing are the largest industries associated with the Mars colonies.

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 Martian colonists celebration party for “Pioneer Days.” Martian sunset seen in the background, behind a massive protective atmospheric shield.

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Fossil Bed Enigma Reveals We May Never Have Been Alone
Found only days ago in the Antoniadi Crater region, is evidence of a fossil and what appears to be human like footprints. Although this discovery may revolutionize our view of the red planet — we must wait for the samples to arrive on Earth to confirm what could be one of the greatest discoveries of all time.

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Discovery at a Martian archeological dig site — “we have never been alone.”

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Perchance, the most fascinating evidence of preexisting intelligence of life on Mars, was discovered near the Antoniadi Crater. Enclosed within a geographic site is a source, which is emitting peculiar magnetic fields. Upon further analysis revealed, distinct patterns of what appears as a mysterious complex digital codex. After extensive review and evaluation using a network of 2020 Enigma Genisus Computing system interpreted it as audible, instrumental sounds accompanied by visual projections of humanoid syncopated movements.BoC video See Ya Later
Most perplexing is the referenced quantitative variables, suggest the site was or is a time capsule or possibly a time-portal. To see the reference audio and visual projection, click on the link below. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53bCaqz0zZA
Music soundtrack for the Martian Prophecies — Powered by Boards of Canada (you can open another web browser if you’d like to have the following music play while viewing this essay)
Solar System & Planetary travel, music  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3l_IMOweP0E
Martian pioneers’ celebratory music  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jBzl–TN1Q   and or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYEZueAelKc  
Music for terraforming Mars to   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qthHlLyvplg
A canopy of stars floats above the Monuments of Mars site, just as "Vesta 2"(support station) enters the view, reflecting solar light in its West-East orbital path.

Martian moonlight illuminates sculpted cliffs, as “Vesta II” (logistics platform) enters view —piercing the night sky with solar light reflecting off its West-East orbital path.

Facts Concerning Mars
One day on Mars = 24 hours 37 minutes and 22 seconds.
One year on Mars = 686.98 Earth days.
Average distance from Earth to Mars = 225 million kilometers.
The minimum distance from Earth to Mars = 54. million km.
The farthest distance from Earth to Mars = 401 million km.
Warmest temperature of Mars — 70 degrees F (20 degrees C) near the equator
Origin of the name Mars = Ancient Roman god of war and agricultural guardian
The calendar Month named after Mars = March
Links to Learn More About Mars
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/01/gallery-mars/
http://cbhd.org/content/whose-image-remaking-humanity-through-cybernetics-and-nanotechnology
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/
http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/travelinginspace/future_propulsion.html
http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2008/nov/06/magnetic-shield-could-protect-spacecraft
http://www.slate.com/blogs/quora/2013/09/12/outer_space_can_we_make_mars_or_venus_habitable.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_private_spaceflight_companies
http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucedorminey/2013/05/29/can-mars-be-terraformed-nasas-maven-mission-could-provide-answers/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point
http://www.applieddefense.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/2001-Carrico-Sun-Mars_Libration_Points_And_Mars_Mission_Simulations.pdf
http://www.thespacereview.com/article/2305/1
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2014/09/08/where-build-off-world-colonies/#.VGp-1BYexjk
http://www.nss.org/spacemovement/greason.html
http://web.mit.edu/sydneydo/Public/Mars%20One%20Feasibility%20Analysis%20IAC14.pdf
A list of over 400 essays on Mars http://www.123helpme.com/search.asp?text=mars

 

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Is Space Law Really That Far Over Your Head?

29 May
Sky_look_ BPP_ae208
  Multimedia Essay By: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights  
 Part 1 of 2 Editions – To see an alternative graphic view of this story see: Space Law | bigpictureone                                                                 
Students and instructors are encouraged to use the visual cues imbedded within the text to quickly locate key information.
Look upwards toward the sky on the next clear day or cloudless night and behold the new legal frontier unfold before your eyes. A mere 65 miles above sea-level, our atmosphere and gravity dwindles into space, where satellites begin to glide silently over Earth’s thin atmosphere. Only a fraction of human history has passed since man-made satellites were far and few between — but that time has since slipped away, replaced by an ever tightening metal jacket of used and disregarded, celestial artifacts. Almost at the start of the space race, “Space Law” was launched and it has had an uphill battle to catchup with the unforeseen consequences of humanity’s reach for the heavens. 
The German V-2 rocket was a sophisticated liquid propellant rocket, which first entered outer-space in 1942.

The German V-2 rocket was a sophisticated liquid propellant rocket, which first entered outer-space in 1942.

At times, defining what Space Law is or does is a nebulous task. This new form of law can be so abstract and full of contradictions that it resembles an art, rather than a science. Like creating a massive sculpture, it’s often a process which involves slow progress — developing overtime through stages of careful analysis and discernment. Space Law will continue to transform itself by maturing, developing refinements and taking on new, dimensions as needed.
There are basically three forms of law, which make up Space Law: 1.) Regulatory Law – sets standards which must be met for securing authority to launch a rocket vehicle.  2.) Tort Law – concerns damages which occur as a result of debris from rocket launch accidents or space and terrestrial impacts from orbital debris. 3.) Common Law – could be applied to circumstances relating to a private entity’s negligence, which causes damage from its orbital debris.
Back To Rocket Science Basics.
The basic blueprint for all modern rockets used in today’s space programs originated from the American physicist, Dr. Robert Goddard, who is considered the father of modern rockets. By the late 1930s, Goddard had tested a liquid propellant rocket — the rocket used vanes or fins attached near the thrust nozzle to help initial launch guidance and a gyro control for flight over the desert in New Mexico. A German scientist, Wernher von Braun’s V-2 rocket borrowed Goddard’s basic design for refinement and increased its scale for later mass production. Used by the German military towards the end of World War II, the V-2 or Aggreat-4 ( A-4) was successfully launched in 1942, making it the first human made object to enter outer space.   http://www.v2rocket.com/start/makeup/design.html
The V-2 was a sophisticated liquid propellant, single stage rocket, which had a top speed of 5,760 km/h (3,580 mph) and could reach an altitude of 83 to 93 km (52 to 60 miles.) At the end of the war, the Americans, British and Russians took possession of all remaining V-2 rockets, along with German engineers, technicians and scientists working on the program. A high priority was placed on researching its capabilities, re-engineering and developing it for national security.
— The Paul Allen Flying Heritage Museum, located at Paine Field, Everett, WA, recently added an authentic V2 rocket for display.
First photograph from space & of the Earth, from a V-2 rocket in 1946 byU.S scientist.

First photograph from space & of the Earth in 1946, from a V-2 rocket at an altitude of 65 miles, by U.S. scientist. Photo: courtesy of U.S. Army

American scientists, James Van Allen and Sydney Chapman were able to convince the U.S. Government of the scientific value for launching rockets carrying satellites into space. A scientific effort in the early 1950s was begun, with the plan to launch American satellites by 1957 or 1958. The Russians surprised the World by launching the first satellite into orbit in 1957 named Sputnik.
A modified V-2 rocket being launch on July 24, 1950. General Electric Company was prime contractor for the launch, Douglas Aircraft Company manufactured the second stage of the rocket & Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) had major rocket design roles & test instrumentation. This was the first launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

A modified V-2 rocket being launch on July 24, 1950. General Electric Company was prime contractor for the launch, Douglas Aircraft Company manufactured the second stage of the rocket & Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) had major rocket design roles & test instrumentation. This was the first launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Photo: courtesy of NASA/U.S. Army

Most major space portals or rocket launch site are located next to oceans or remote location to limit legal liability in case of failed launch. It's estimated 10 % of rocket launches end in failure. Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Most major space portals and rocket launch sites are located next to oceans or remote locations to limit legal liability in case of a failed launch. It’s estimated 8 % of rocket launches end in failure. Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

What Goes Up, Must Come Down.
Rocket launch programs have always had to contend with Newton’s law of gravity, today, these programs face new challenges with liability laws, to protect individuals and property from unexpected accidents.
Case Study:  The first time a major issue of liability occurred was in 1962, on a street within Manitowoc, Wisconsin. Apparently, a three-kilogram metal artifact from the Russian’s 1960, Sputnik 4 satellite launch, reentered the atmosphere unannounced, over an unsuspecting Midwest. The Russian’s denied it was theirs, fearing liability under international law. This event, helped set in motion, the 1963 Declaration on Legal Principals Governing the Activities of State in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space. As an international agreement, it puts forth the responsibility to the State which launches or engages the launching of objects into space as internationally responsible for damages caused on Earth. In 1967, the agreement was slightly modified and was titled “Outer Space Treaty 1967.” 
A photo illustration of space debris from a low Earth orbit reentering the atmosphere over a city. Earth has water covering 70% of its surface — when attempts fail to guide space debris towards open oceans, the chance for these falling objects to hit a populated area increase. Space Law sets the liability for damages caused by the space debris to the nation or agency responsible responsible to its original rocket launch.

A photo illustration of space debris from a low Earth orbit reentering the atmosphere over a city. Earth has water covering 70% of its surface — when attempts fail to guide space debris towards open oceans, the chance for these falling objects to hit a populated area increase. Space Law sets the liability for damages caused by the space debris to the nation or agency responsible for its original rocket launch.

By 1984, the United Nations General Assembly, had adopted five sets of legal principles governing international law and cooperation in space activities. The principles include the following agreements and conventions.“Outer Space Treaty” – the use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies (1967 – resolution 2222.) “Rescue Agreement” – the  agreement to rescue Astronauts/Cosmonauts, the Return of Astronauts/Cosmonauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Space (1968 – resolution 2345.) “Liability Convention” – the Convention on International Liability for Damaged Caused by Space Objects (1972 – resolution 2777.) “Registration Convention” – the registration of  Objects Launched into Outer Space (1975 – resolution 3235.) “Moon Agreement” – the agreement Governing the Activities of  States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (1979 – resolution 34/68.)
Because so many languages are involved with these international agreements, terms used in Space Law often gets lost in translation. There are linguistic limitations and general lack of necessary definitions to adequately cover specific space concepts and activities using Space Law. Each Nation has its own agenda and vision concerning the development of space — then throw in multinational companies and things get really diluted when it comes to working out agreements regarding laws governing space.
Although most large "space junk" is monitored and efforts are made for reentry over uninhabited areas, satellites or sections of rockets can potentially fall anywhere.

Although most large “space debris” is monitored and great efforts are made for reentry to take place over uninhabited areas – satellites or sections of rockets can potentially fall anywhere.

Cuba Gives A New Meaning To A Cash Cow.
Case Study:  In November of 1960, the second stage of a U.S. Thor rocket fell back to Earth and killed a cow grazing in Eastern Cuba. The final settlement required the U.S. Government to pay Cuba $2 million dollars in compensation — creating the world’s first “Cuban Cash Cow.”
Dramatic Rocket Launch Failures Associated With Space Exploration.
It’s estimated since the 1950s, of the nearly 8,000 rockets launched for space related missions, 8 % of rocket launches ended in failure (2012 spacelaunchreport.com.) The resulting anomalies have cost the lives of hundreds of astronauts, cosmonauts and civilians along with billions of dollars in losses. Here’s an abbreviated list of dramatic and tragic events associated with rocket launch failures.
Vanguard TV3, December 9, 1957 launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida (U.S.) was the first U.S. attempt at sending a satellite into orbit.  A first event of its kind to use a live televised broadcast, which ended by witnessing Vanguard’s explosive failure. Unfortunately this launch was a rush reaction to the Soviet Union’s surprise success of launching the world’s first satellite, Sputnik, on October 23, 1957. WA Okang SatDshBP_e1103
Vostok rocket, March 18, 1980, launched from Plesetsk, Russia (formerly the world’s busiest spaceport). While being refueled the rocket exploded on the launch pad, killing 50, mostly young soldiers. (Source: New York Times article, published September 28, 1989)
Challenger STS-51-L Space Shuttle disaster, January 28, 1986, launched from Kennedy Space Center (U.S.) marked the first U.S. in-flight fatalities. After only 73 seconds from lift-off, faulty O-ring seals failed, releasing hot gases from the solid propellant rocket booster (SRB), which led to a catastrophic failure. Seven crew members were lost, including Christy McAullife,  selected by NASA’s Teacher in Space Program. McAullife was the first civilian to be trained as an astronaut — she would have been the first civilian to enter space, but tragically, the flight ended a short distance before reaching the edge of space. Recovery efforts for Challenger were the most expensive of any rocket launch disaster to date.
Long Mark 3B rocket launch, payload: American communication satellite, built by Space Systems Loral – February 14, 1996 in Xichang (China) – two seconds into launch, rocket pitched over just after clearing the launch tower and accelerated  horizontally a few hundred feet off the ground, before hitting a hill 22 seconds into its flight. The rocket slammed into a hillside exploding in a fireball above a nearby town, it’s estimated at least 100 people died in the resulting aftermath.    Disaster at Xichang | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine
Delta 2, rocket launch – January 1997, Cape Canaveral (U.S.) – this rocket carried a new GPS satellite and ends in a spectacular explosion. Video link included to show examples of  worst case scenario of a rocket exploding only seconds after launch (note brightly burning rocket propellant cascading to the ground is known as “firebrand”.)  The short video has an interview with Chester Whitehair, former VP of Space Launch Operations Aerospace Corporation, who describes how the burning debris and toxic hydrochloric gas cloud fell into the Atlantic Ocean from the rocket explosion. Rocket launch sites and spaceports are geographically chosen to mitigate rocket launch accidents .   US rocket disasters – YouTube
Titan 4, rocket launch – August 1998, Cape Canaveral (U.S.) the last launch of a Titan rocket – with a military, top-secret satellite payload, was the most expensive rocket disaster to date – estimated loss of $ 1.3 Billion dollars.
VLS-3 rocket, launch  – August 2003, Alcantara (Brazil) – rocket exploded on launch pad when the rocket booster was accidentally initiated during test 72 hours before its scheduled launch. Reports of at least 21 people were killed at the site.
Global location & GPS coordinates of major spaceports & launch sites. ??? - Do you see any similarities in the geographic locations used for these launch sites? What advantages do these locations have regarding "Space Law?" For most rocket launches, which site has the greatest geographic advantage & why; which has the least advantage & why?

                                                                                                                                                             Global location, GPS coordinates of major spaceports & launch sites. Rocket launch debris fields indicated & Links to space port’s web sites included.  (CLICK ON MAP TO ENLARGE)   Quiz ??? – 1.) Do you see any similarities in the geographic locations used for these launch sites? 2.) What advantages do these locations have regarding “Space Law?” 3.) For most rocket launches, which site has the greatest geographic advantage & why 4.) which has the least advantage & why?

Location, Location, Location Benefits Rocket Launch Sites.
If you zoom into the above World map with its rocket launch sites, you’ll notice all the locations gravitate toward remote regions. Another feature most spaceports share is large bodies of water located to the east, with the exception of the U.S. Vandenberg site. Less likely hood of people or property being threaten by a rocket launch, which could experience a catastrophic failure is why oceans are used as a safety barrier. Legal liability from a launch vehicle is a reason why all ships and aircraft are restricted from being anywhere near a rockets flight path. The rocket debris fields are marked with red highlights, this fallen debris is a highly toxic form of unspent fuel and oxidizers.
Most rockets are launched towards an easterly direction due to the Earth’s eastern rotation, which aids the rocket with extra momentum.  An exception for an east directional launch is Vandenberg site in California, which launches most of its rockets south for polar orbits used by communication and mapping satellites.
Launching rockets closer to the equator gives a launch vehicle one more advantage — extra velocity gained from the Earth’s rotation near its equator. At the equator, our planet spins at a speed of 1675 kph (1040 mph,) compared to a spot near the Arctic Circle, which moves at a slower, 736 kph (457 mph.) Even the smallest advantage gained in velocity means a rocket requires less fuel to reach “escape velocity.” This fuel savings translates to a lighter launch vehicle, making the critical transition of leaving Earth’s gravitational field quicker.
The next edition of the Space Law series includes:
Potential Minefield Effects From Space Debris And The Regulatory Laws To Help Clean It Up.
Will Asteroid Mining Become The Next Big Gold Rush And What Laws Will Keep The Frontier Order?

Surprise space mission featured videos: Click → http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfVfRWv7igg →    Boards of Canada – Music is Math (HD)

→     Boards of Canada – Gemini – Fan Video on Vimeo
WA Okang SatDshBP_e1103
Links And Resources For Space Law And Related Issues.

The Space Review: International space law and commercial space activities: the rules do apply Outlook on Space Law Over the Next 30 Years: Essays Published for the 30th … – Google Books “SPACE FOR DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISMS – DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISM” by Frans G. von der Dunk Asteroid mining: US company looks to space for precious metal | Science | The Guardian Planetary Resources – The Asteroid Mining Company – News 5 of the Worst Space Launch Failures | Wired Science | Wired.com Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment NASA Orbital Debris FAQs ‎orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/library/IAR_95_Document.pdf A Minefield in Earth Orbit: How Space Debris Is Spinning Out of Control [Interactive]: Scientific American SpaceX signs lease agreement at spaceport to test reusable rocket – latimes.com Earth’s rotation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Space Review: Spacecraft stats and insights Space Launch Report V-2 rocket – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Billionaire Paul Allen gets V-2 rocket for aviation museum near Seattle – Science Germany conducts first successful V-2 rocket test — History.com This Day in History — 10/3/1942

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/billionaire-paul-allen-gets-v-2-rocket-aviation-museum-near-1C9990063 

International space law is emerging from its infancy, attempting to more clearly define itself from a nebulous amalgam of; agreements, amendments, codes, rules, regulations, jurisdictions, treaties and non-binding measures. There exist today, enough legal framework for commercial interest to move cautiously towards developing outer space. However, with the unforeseen variables and dynamics of space activities, exceptions will be made & rules will be stretched, if not broken to accommodate necessity, justification or exculpation. ~
Part 1 of 2 editions – please check back soon for the conclusion of this essay.
Photo illustration of space debris by: David Johanson Vasquez, using a NASA photo of Skylab.

Photo illustration of space debris by: David Johanson Vasquez, using a NASA photo of Skylab.

 WA Okang SatDshBP_e1103

Reflections From A Future Hawaii: Can A Tropical Paradise Become A Portal To Deep Space?

28 Feb

Honolulu, Hawaii 2054: Launch gateway to L4 & L5 space stations, Tranquility Moon Base and the Mars Frontier.

Honolulu, Hawaii 2054: Launch gateway to L4 & L5 space stations, L2 Lunar Hub and the Mars Frontier. Illuminated aircraft and monorail tubes bring early commuters into the City as twilight transitions to dawn. 

Multimedia essay by: David Johanson Vasquez © All  Rights

Waikiki, on Hawaii’s Island of Oahu is a Cross Roads of the World. The allure of this tropical city attracts millions of vacationing pilgrims from across the globe. Steady infusion of foreign and domestic investment creates a dynamic and often futuristic looking metropolis.

Digital display at the Galleria.

Digital display at the Galleria.

  On my last visit to Waikiki in November, I came across an ultramodern, duty-free, fashion and clothing store  located on its main boulevard. Entering this multiplex shopping site felt like being on the sci-fi movie sets for Spielberg’s Minority Report or  Ridely Scott’s Blade Runner. My son-in-law commented as he left the “Galleria” — “it was a sensory overload experience,” and headed back to the hotel to sleep it off. Hawa_Futr_BPP_121116_a38 . .

Portal entry to Waikiki's Galleria.

A hall portal entry to Waikiki’s Galleria.

Entering the Galleria is exciting and dynamic for those who are ready  for a hyper-sensory encounter while shopping for fashion and cosmetics products.

Honolulu’s Dynamic Style of Architecture

Honolulu encompasses Waikiki and has a rich, vibrant range of architectural styles, including its own unique “Hawaiian Architectural Style. Within Waikiki, the new architecture blends modern and Japanese style. 

Modern Hawaiian architectural style.

Modern Hawaiian architectural style.

Honolulu skyline with natural vegetation in foreground.

Honolulu skyline with natural vegetation in foreground.

From our condo balcony we could see a night panorama of Honolulu, which inspired  this essay’s theme of — a reflections from a future Hawaii. 

Waikiki_Pano_BPP_ewp_44

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Massive walls of electronic  projection frame the entry environment in Waikiki's Galleria.

Massive walls of electronic projection frame the entry environment in Waikiki’s Galleria.

The Sky Is No Longer The Limit For Digital Displays

Contemporary marketing and advertising have embraced electronics LED’s to capture our attention and stimulate our senses. We can expect the future will sustain sensory overload for the marketing of products, services and ideas on a global scale.     

 

Multimedia environments are more common in the 21st Century. As natural environments are increasingly altered or replaced by new ones, projections of “paradise lost” will attempt to fill an expanding void.

Honolulu skyline with natural vegetation in foreground.

Honolulu panorama

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A Scenario For Things To Come

Advances in artificial intelligence [AI] and remote-control technology continues expanding its role in automating transportation industries. Seamless, point-A-to-point-B travel provided by auto pilot features in ground and air transportation standard— World travel  becomes even more assessable and affordable. 

A futuristic Boeing pilotless passenger jet with personal projection systems ( PPS).

A futuristic Boeing pilotless passenger jet with personal projection systems ( PPS).

Both Work and play  amenities can be extended to just about any  cabin environment for an enhanced travel experience.

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South Point (Ka Lae) – Naalehu, Big Island, Hawaii +18° 54′ 39.96″, -155° 40′ 52.00″ “The Pan Pacific Launch Site” — Gateway To Lunar And Deep Space Exploration

↑As international space exploration matures, greater consortiums and partnerships develop between countries and corporations to create  space operations staging points near Earth’s orbit.

NASA Illustration of Lagrange Ponts of Earth-Sun System (not proportion to scale)

NASA Illustration of Lagrange Ponts of Earth-Sun System (not proportioned to scale)

The Lagrangian Points: of L2, L4 and L5 are  locations relatively close to Earth, which provide stable orbits for building hubs to assist in lunar, deep-space and asteroid exploratory missions. 

 

                   

Photo courtesy of NASA.

Photo courtesy of NASA.

The Big Island of Hawaii's South Point ( Ka Lae) is in the neighborhood of 1,400 miles from the  Equator,  which requires less fuel for launching rockets into orbit.

The Big Island of Hawaii’s South Point ( Ka Lae) is in the neighborhood of 1,400 miles from the Equator, which requires less fuel for launching rockets into orbit.  On the right, a SpaceX rocket has lifted off from the Pan Pacific Launch Site, on its journey to an international L2 Lunar Hub – Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez © 

Rocket view looking back towards Hawaii's Pan Pacific Launch Site.

Space view looking back towards Hawaii’s Pan Pacific Launch Site. Photo by: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Locations of previous NASA Apollo Manned landing sites. Photo illustration courtesy of NASA.

Locations of previous NASA Apollo Manned landing sites. Photo illustration courtesy of NASA.

Section view of International L2 Lunar Hub in stable platform orbit. Prime contracting consortium: Boeing, Mitsubishi HI, AviChina, Hindustan Aeronautics and ST Engineering.  — Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Section view of International L2 Lunar Hub in stable platform orbit. Prime contracting consortium: Boeing, Mitsubishi HI, AviChina, Hindustan Aeronautics and ST Engineering. — Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

"Asteroid 1" - artist concept of asteroid mining mission to an Earth approaching asteroid.NASA sponsored a study on space manufacturing held at Ames Research Center (ARC) June1977, commissioned painting by - Denise Watt.

Asteroid 1″ – artist concept of asteroid mining mission to an Earth approaching asteroid.
NASA sponsored a study on space manufacturing held at Ames Research Center (ARC) June 1977, commissioned painting by – Denise Watt.

Digital post cards from the Martian Frontier.— Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Digital post cards from the Martian Frontier.
— Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Digital post cards from Mars - mining operations on the "Red Planet."  — Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights.

Digital post cards from the Martian Frontier – mining operations during a “Red Planet”sunset. — Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights.

Links & Resources:

http://www.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=4926

University of Hawaii Manoa Small-Satellite Program Selected for NASA launch

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http://www.universityofhawaiiinnovation.com/features/readying-for-liftoff/

University of Hawaii innovation article about UH College of Engineering Satellite Program –  by: Jolyn Okimoto Rosa

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHdNSS85c5M

↑    ↑    ↑    ↑

Please view this window into the future, with a marvelous video of a low Earth orbit (LEO). Watch in full view mode, with the volume turned up.

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